Online First Versions 1 Vol 2 (2) 2019
Download
GeoLink Data Set: A Complex Alignment Benchmark from Real-world Ontology
: 2019 - 04 - 15
: 2019 - 08 - 10
: 2019 - 10 - 10
163 2 0
Abstract & Keywords
Abstract: Ontology alignment has been studied for over a decade, and over that time many alignment systems and methods have been developed by researchers in order to find simple 1-to-1 equivalence matches between two ontologies. However, very few alignment systems focus on finding complex correspondences. One reason for this limitation may be that there are no widely accepted alignment benchmarks that contain such complex relationships. In this paper, we propose a real-world data set from the GeoLink project as a potential complex ontology alignment benchmark. The data set consists of two ontologies, the GeoLink Base Ontology (GBO) and the GeoLink Modular Ontology (GMO), as well as a manually created reference alignment that was developed in consultation with domain experts from different institutions. The alignment includes 1:1, 1:n, and m:n equivalence and subsumption correspondences, and is available in both Expressive and Declarative Ontology Alignment Language (EDOAL) and rule syntax. The benchmark has been expanded from its original version to contain real-world instance data from seven geoscience data providers that has been published according to both ontologies. This allows it to be used by extensional alignment systems or those that require training data. This benchmark has been incorporated into the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI) complex track to help researchers test their automated alignment systems and algorithms. This paper also analyzes the challenges inherent in effectively generating, detecting, and evaluating complex ontology alignments and provides a road map for future work on this topic.
Keywords: Ontology matching; Complex ontology alignment; Real-world ontology; Ontology population; Complex ontology alignment benchmark
Acknowledgments
We would like to thank all of the members of the GeoLink project team. In addition, we extend ourgratitude to Jerome Euzenat for providing advice regarding the conversion of rules to EDOAL. Moreover,we would like to express our appreciation to Daniel Faria for helping us to prepare the data set forevaluation on the SEALS platform.
[1]
P. Shvaiko & J. Euzenat. Ontology matching: State of the art and future challenges. IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 25(1)(2013), 158–176. doi: 10.1109/TKDE.2011.253.
[2]
M. Cheatham & P. Hitzler. The properties of property alignment. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Ontology Matching collocated with the 13th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2014), 2014, pp. 13–24. Available at: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1317/om2014\_Tpaper2.pdf.
[3]
L. Zhou, M. Cheatham, A. Krisnadhi & P. Hitzler. A complex alignment benchmark: Geolink data set. In: The Semantic Web – ISWC 2018 – 17th International Semantic Web Conference, 2018, pp. 273–288. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-00668-6\_17.
[4]
J. David. AROMA results for OAEI 2009. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Ontology Matching (OM-2009) collocated with the 8th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC-2009), 2009. Available at: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-551/oaei09\_paper3.pdf.
[5]
É. Thiéblin, O. Haemmerlé, N. Hernandez & C. Trojahn. Task-oriented complex ontology alignment: Two alignment evaluation sets. In: The Semantic Web – 15th International Conference, ESWC 2018, 2018, pp. 655–670. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-93417-4\_42.
[6]
É. Thiéblin, O. Haemmerlé, N. Hernandez & C.T. dos Santos. Towards a complex alignment evaluation data set. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on Ontology Matching co-located with the 16th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2017), 2017, pp. 217–218. Available at: http: //ceur-ws.org/Vol-2032/om2017\_poster6.pdf.
[7]
É. Thiéblin, O. Haemmerlé, & C. Trojahn. CANARD complex matching system: results of the 2018 OAEI evaluation campaign. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Workshop on Ontology Matching co-located with the 17th International Semantic Web Conference, 2018, pp. 138–143. Available at: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-2288/oaei18\_paper4.pdf.
[8]
L. Zhou. A journey from simple to complex alignment on real-world ontologies. In: Proceedings of the Doctoral Consortium at ISWC 2018 co-located with 17th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2018), 2018, pp. 93–101. Available at: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-2181/paper-11. pdf.
[9]
É. Thiéblin, M. Cheatham, C.T. dos Santos, O. Zamazal & L. Zhou. The first version of the OAEI complex alignment benchmark. In: Proceedings of the ISWC 2018 Posters & Demonstrations, Industry and Blue Sky Ideas Tracks co-located with 17th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2018). Available at: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-2180/paper-67.pdf.
[10]
D. Ritze, C. Meilicke, O. Sváb-Zamazal & H. Stuckenschmidt. A pattern-based ontology matching approach for detecting complex correspondences. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Ontology Matching (OM-2009) collocated with the 8th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC-2009). Available at: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-551/om2009\_Tpaper3.pdf.
[11]
D. Ritze, J. Völker, C. Meilicke & O. Sváb-Zamazal. Linguistic analysis for complex ontology matching. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Ontology Matching (OM-2010), 2010. Available at: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-689/om2010\_Tpaper1.pdf.
[12]
S. Jiang, D. Lowd, S. Kafle & D. Dou. Ontology matching with knowledge rules. In: Q. Chen et al. (eds.) Database and Expert Systems Applications. Cham, Switzerland: Springer, 2015, pp 94-108. doi: 10.1007/978-3-662-53455-7_4.
[13]
P. Jain, P. Hitzler, A.P. Sheth, K. Verma & P.Z. Yeh. Ontology alignment for linked open data. In: The Semantic Web – ISWC 2010 – 9th International Semantic Web Conference, ISWC 2010, 2010, pp. 402–417. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-17746-0\_26.
[14]
F.M. Suchanek, S. Abiteboul & P. Senellart. PARIS: Probabilistic alignment of relations, instances, and schema. PVLDB 5(2011), 157–168.
[15]
C. Pesquita, M. Cheatham, D. Faria, J. Barros, E. Santos & F.M. Couto. Building reference alignments for compound matching of multiple ontologies using OBO cross-products. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Ontology Matching collocated with the 13th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC 2014), 2014, pp. 172–173. Available at: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1317/om2014\_poster2.pdf.
[16]
J. You. Geoscientists aim to magnify specialized web searching. Science 347(6217)(2015), 11. doi: 10.1126/science.347.6217.11.
[17]
A.A. Krisnadhi, Y. Hu, K. Janowicz, P. Hitzler, R.A. Arko, S. Carbotte … & P. Wiebe. The geolink framework for pattern-based linked data integration. In: Proceedings of the ISWC 2015 Posters & Demonstrations Track co-located with the 14th International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC-2015), 2015. Available at: http://ceur-ws.org/Vol-1486/paper\_99.pdf.
[18]
P. Hitzler, A. Gangemi, K. Janowicz, A. Krisnadhi &V. Presutti (eds.) Ontology engineering with ontology design patterns - Foundations and applications, studies on the semantic Web. Amsterdam : IOS Press, 2016. isbn: 9781614996750.
[19]
A. Krisnadhi, Y. Hu, K. Janowicz, P. Hitzler, R.A. Arko, S. Carbotte … & P. Wiebe. The geolink modular oceanography ontology. In: The Semantic Web – ISWC 2015 – 14th International Semantic Web Conference, 2015, pp. 301–309. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-25010-6\_19.
[20]
A.A. Krisnadhi, P. Hitzler & K. Janowicz. On the capabilities and limitations of OWL regarding typecasting and ontology design pattern views. In: Ontology Engineering – 12th International Experiences and Directions Workshop on OWL, 2015, pp. 105–116. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-33245-1\_11.
[21]
A. Krisnadhi. Ontology pattern-based data integration. PhD dissertation, Wright State University, 2015.
[22]
A. Isaac, L. van der Meij, S. Schlobach & S. Wang. An empirical study of instance-based ontology matching. In: The Semantic Web, 6th International Semantic Web Conference, 2nd Asian Semantic Web Conference, 2007, pp. 253–266. doi: 10.1007/978-3-540-76298-0\_19.
[23]
J.J. Carroll, I. Dickinson, C. Dollin, D. Reynolds, A. Seaborne & K. Wilkinson. Jena: implementing the semantic web recommendations. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web – Alternate Track Papers & Posters, 2004, pp. 74–83. doi: 10.1145/1013367.1013381.
[24]
B. Glimm, I. Horrocks, B. Motik, G. Stoilos & Z. Wang. Hermit: An OWL 2 reasoner. Journal of Automated Reasoning 53(3)(2014), 245-269. doi: 10.1007/s10817-014-9305-1.
[25]
J. Euzenat. Semantic precision and recall for ontology alignment evaluation. In: IJCAI 2007, Proceedings of the 20th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, 2007, pp. 348–353. Available at: http://ijcai.org/Proceedings/07/Papers/054.pdf.
[26]
B.A.C. Schopman, S. Wang, A. Isaac & S. Schlobach. Instance-based ontology matching by instance enrichment. Journal on Data Semantics 1(4)(2012), 219–236. doi: 10.1007/s13740-012-0011-z.
Article and author information
Cite As
L. Zhou, M. Cheatham, A. Krisnadhi & P. Hitzler. GeoLink data set: A complex alignment benchmark from real-worldontology. Data Intelligence 2(2019).
Lu Zhou
This work was conceptualized during discussion among all of the authors. L. Zhou (luzhou@ksu.edu)prepared the data set and wrote the first draft of the paper. All of the authors have made valuable contributions in editing and revising the final version ofthe article.
Lu Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Data Semantics Laboratory at Kansas StateUniversity. He is currently working with Dr. Pascal Hitzler on semantic dataintegration. His research interests lie within knowledge graph schemamatching, natural language processing, applied machine learning, coreferenceresolution, and knowledge graph population. He has published papers inconferences and journals, such as World Wide Web Conference (WWW),International Semantic Web Conference (ISWC), and Knowledge EngineeringReview (KER). He served as a reviewer for several conferences and journals,such as Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC), ISWC, KER, Transactionson Social Computing (ACMTSC), and Journal of Computers and Applications(JCA). In addition, he is one of the organizers of the conference track and thecomplex track for the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative (OAEI), as partof the annual Ontology Matching workshop.
Michelle Cheatham
This work was conceptualized during discussion among all of the authors. M. Cheatham (michelle.cheatham@wright.edu),A. Krisnadhi (adila@cs.ui.ac.id) and P. Hitzler (hitzler@ksu.edu) clarified concepts and contributions inthe paper. All of the authors have made valuable contributions in editing and revising the final version ofthe article.
Michelle Cheatham is an Assistant Professor in the Department of ComputerScience and Engineering at Wright State University. She has previouslyheld positions in government and industry, focusing on machine learningand cyber security. Her current research interests focus on semantic dataintegration, including ontology alignment, coreference resolution and privacyconcerns of data mining. She was a member of the organizing committee ofthe Ontology Matching workshop and assisted in evaluating results from theannual Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative from 2015 through 2018and the organizing committee of the Security, Privacy and the SemanticWeb workshop in 2017. Dr. Cheatham received a PhD in Computer Scienceand Engineering from Wright State University in 2014, a Master’s degree inthat subject from the same institution in 2006, and a Master’s degree inBusiness Administration and a Bachelor’s degree in Computer Sciencefrom the University of Kentucky in 2001. For more information, see www.michellecheatham.com.
Adila Krisnadhi
This work was conceptualized during discussion among all of the authors. M. Cheatham (michelle.cheatham@wright.edu),A. Krisnadhi (adila@cs.ui.ac.id) and P. Hitzler (hitzler@ksu.edu) clarified concepts and contributions inthe paper. All of the authors have made valuable contributions in editing and revising the final version ofthe article.
Adila Krisnadhi is a lecturer at the Faculty of Computer Science, UniversitasIndonesia. Since 2019, he is also a co-director of Tokopedia-UI AI Center ofExcellence. He was a member of the Data Semantics Laboratory from 2010to 2017 where he was a PhD student and postdoctoral researcher. Hisresearch interests cover a number of topics within semantic Web, dataintegration, knowledge representation and reasoning, and machine learning,particularly related to ontology design patterns, ontology engineeringmethodologies, knowledge graph modeling and construction, as well asreasoning over ontologies and knowledge graphs with more than 60publications in conferences and journals such as Semantic Web journal,Big Earth Data, International Semantic Web Conference(ISWC), ExtendedSemantic Web Conference (ESWC) and World Wide Web conference (WWW).He is a board member of the Association for Ontology Design & Patterns andco-chaired the 2019 edition of Workshop of Ontology Design and Patterns(WOP). He served as a reviewer for several journals: Journal of Web Semantics,Semantic Web journal, Artificial Intelligence, and Journal of Applied Ontology.Also, he has been a PC member of several major conferences such as ISWC,ESWC, AAAI, and WWW.
Pascal Hitzler
This work was conceptualized during discussion among all of the authors. M. Cheatham (michelle.cheatham@wright.edu),A. Krisnadhi (adila@cs.ui.ac.id) and P. Hitzler (hitzler@ksu.edu) clarified concepts and contributions inthe paper. All of the authors have made valuable contributions in editing and revising the final version ofthe article.
Pascal Hitzler is Professor and endowed Lloyd T. Smith Creativity inEngineering Chair at the Department of Computer Science at Kansas StateUniversity and Director of the Data Semantics (DaSe) Laboratory. His researchrecord lists over 400 publications in such diverse areas as semantic Web,artificial intelligence, neural-symbolic integration, knowledge representationand reasoning, machine learning, denotational semantics and set-theoretictopology. His research is highly cited. He is founding Editor-in-chief of theSemantic Web journal, the leading journal in the field, and of the IOS Pressbook series studies on the semantic Web. He is co-author of the W3CRecommendation OWL 2 Primer, and of the book Foundations of SemanticWeb Technologies by CRC Press, 2010, which was named as one out of sevenOutstanding Academic Titles 2010 in Information and Computer Science bythe American Library Association’s Choice Magazine, and has translationsinto German and Chinese. He is on the editorial board of several journalsand book series and a founding steering committee member of the NeuralSymbolic Learning and Reasoning Association and the Association forOntology Design and Patterns. For more information about him, see http://www.pascal-hitzler.de.
Publication records
Published: Nov. 13, 2019 (Versions1
References
Data Intelligence