Published Versions 3 Vol 2 (1) : 122–130 2020
FAIR Data and Services in Biodiversity Science and Geoscience
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Abstract & Keywords
Abstract: We examine the intersection of the FAIR principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, And Reusable), the challenges and opportunities presented by the aggregation of widely distributed and heterogeneous data about biological and geological specimens, and the use of the Digital Object Architecture (DOA) data model and components as an approach to solving those challenges that offers adherence to the FAIR principles as an integral characteristic.
Keywords: Digital Object Architecture (DOA); FAIR; DiSSCo; Biodiversity; Geoscience
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Article and author information
Cite As
L. Lannom, D. Koureas & A.R. Hardisty. FAIR data and services in biodiversity science and geoscience. Data Intelligence 2(2020), 122–130. doi: 10.1162/dint_a_00034
Larry Lannom
L. Lannom ( is a key member of the team at Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI) that has designed and developed the Digital Object Architecture. All authors contributed equally to the writing, review and approval of the present article.
Larry Lannom is Director of Information Services and Vice President at the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), where he works with organizations in both the public and private sectors to develop experimental and pilot applications of advanced networking and information management technologies. Mr Lannom’s current work is focused on CNRI’s Digital Object Architecture, which is based on the concept of the digital object, a uniform approach to representing digital information across computing and application environments, both now and into the future. Mr. Lannom joined CNRI in September of 1996. Prior to that, he was a Technical Director at DynCorp, Inc., where he served as an advisor on digital library research for the ISTO, CSTO, and ITO offices of the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), including initiating the Computer Science Technical Reports (CS-TR) project, DARPA’s first effort in the digital library area. In addition, he managed the development of internal information systems for DARPA. Originally trained as a librarian, his earlier work included reference book publishing and information retrieval research.
Dimitris Koureas
A.R. Hardisty ( and D. Koureas ( conceived and investigated use of Digital Object Architecture to address challenges in building research infrastructure for biodiversity science and geoscience. All authors contributed equally to the writing, review and approval of the present article.
Dimitris Koureas is currently head of the department for the development of international biodiversity research infrastructures at Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Coordinator of the new pan-European Research Infrastructure DiSSCo and chair of the COST Action Mobilize. He holds a PhD in plant systematics with post-doctoral expertise acquired in biodiversity informatics/e-taxonomy. He participates as a senior manager in many European projects in the areas of biodiversity data and infrastructures. He is former chair of the Biodiversity Information Standards (TDWG) organization and current member of the Technical Advisory Board of the Research Data Alliance (RDA). He is an invited lecturer on biodiversity infrastructures in European universities.
Alex R. Hardisty
A.R. Hardisty ( and D. Koureas ( conceived and investigated use of Digital Object Architecture to address challenges in building research infrastructure for biodiversity science and geoscience. All authors contributed equally to the writing, review and approval of the present article.
Alex Hardisty is Director of Informatics Projects in the School of Computer Science and Informatics at Cardiff University, where his leadership contributions in environmental, biodiversity and ecological informatics have spanned engineering of large-scale distributed computing systems (e-Infrastructures), curating scientific information in knowledge infrastructures, virtual research environments, and socio-technical issues of new technology adoption. Alex leads work in the EU Horizon 2020 ICEDIG project on “innovation and consolidation for large scale digitization of natural heritage”, a part of the Distributed System of Scientific Collections (DiSSCo) programme, where he is presently designing the global architecture for Digital Specimens and Collections. As a technical innovator, Alex has previously been responsible for the Biodiversity Virtual e-Laboratory (BioVeL), the Reference Model for research infrastructures for environmental sciences (ENVRI RM), and the “Bari Manifesto” for an interoperability framework for Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBV). Alex is a Chartered Information Systems Professional Fellow of the British Computer Society (BCS) and Member of the Chartered Management Institute (CMI). Prior to joining Cardiff University in 2002, Alex worked as a consultant, systems engineer and software programmer in the telecommunications and defence industries.
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